Remembering LineDrive

Once upon a time, there was a website called MapBlast. This was during the wild frontier days of online road maps about ten years ago, when MapQuest was king and Google Maps was but a gleam in the eye of a couple of Danish guys in Australia. MapBlast never seemed to me to be more than a minor player during these days, but it had one special feature that made it my website of choice for route planning: LineDrive directions.

Then, as now, all the other online mapping services gave you route maps that looked like this, a highlighted route drawn onto a standard road map:

MapBlast, though, could give you what they called LineDrive directions, a linear cartogram of your trip that looked like this:

LineDrive was developed by Maneesh Agrawala, Chris Stolte, and Christian Chabot at Stanford University, and they describe their system in a 2001 paper if you’re interested in the details. What is most interesting to me is the creators’ inspiration for LineDrive: hand-drawn route maps. While most online mapping services were, and still are, patterned after paper road atlases, LineDrive was designed to look like what you might quickly sketch on a napkin.

Grabbed from the above-mentioned paper. Probably not done on an actual napkin.

This starting point leads to something quite remarkable. Hand-drawn route maps are custom products — they’re for just a few people, and are about going between one specific place and another. A road atlas, on the other hand, is the same for everyone. It doesn’t change based on the situation. It’s multipurpose, which is quite valuable, but it’s not as effective for a given route as something customized.

When the Web came along, the mapping services that came online simply translated the idea of a paper road atlas into its digital equivalent. They added a few enhancements — you could zoom in and out or draw routes on them, but it was fundamentally the same thing. It was still multipurpose, not customized. When mapping services today talk about customization, they mean that you get to draw a blue line on top of their map or add a picture of a pushpin. But the map is always the same for everyone. LineDrive’s most remarkable feature was that it gave everyone their own map, fully customized to their specific situation. It should have been revolutionary, but it turns out that nothing ever came of it, at least in the realm of online driving directions.

I did not apprehend the significance of this development at the time. Instead, I merely loved the design. It was brilliant. Clean, simple, effective. It tells you everything you need to know about how to get from A to B, and it tells you nothing else. There is no clutter. It does not take up my time or printer ink with roads I won’t be using, or cities hundreds of miles from those I’ll be passing through. I can look at this map quickly while driving. I don’t have to hunt around the page to find the little blue line that contains the path information I need — everything on this page is there because it’s essential.

The LineDrive map shows every detail of the whole route at once by distorting scale. It makes the short legs of the trip look longer, and the long legs shorter, so that everything is visible on the same page at once. With a more traditional road map, either in an atlas or printed off of Google/Bing/etc., I would actually need several maps at different scales to cover each part of the route — zooming in to Madison to show how I get to the highway, then zooming out to show the highway portion of the trip, etc. LineDrive fits everything on the same page, and it does so legibly. Again, it’s customized, which is what gives it value.

Since the scale changes, the length of each leg drawn on the map doesn’t correspond to the same distance. Therefore each line is marked with its distance, so you don’t lose that valuable information. In fact, distance is presented more clearly than on a standard road map. If I wanted to figure out how long each leg of my trip was on Google’s map, I’d have to go compare each one to the scale bar in the corner, measuring it out bit by bit. Or, I’d have to check the written directions. It’s not usually presented clearly on the map itself. For me, LineDrive eliminates the need for a verbal listing of directions accompanying the map. They can be clearly read out from the map itself, distances and turn directions and all.

This map doesn’t do everything, to be sure. It’s only good for getting from one place to another. It’s very purpose-specific, and there are plenty of things that more standard traditional print and online road maps can do that this can’t. It won’t tell you where the city you’re driving to actually is, or what’s nearby. You can’t deviate from the path, so you can’t react to road closures or changes of plan by switching roads. You don’t know the names of the towns you’ll be passing through. Within its particular niche, though, LineDrive was very, very effective, just like the hand-drawn maps it was inspired by.

I have never understood why it did not catch on. Perhaps most people don’t usually use the map to drive the route — the verbal directions tell them where to go more clearly. Perhaps they only have the map to plan routes, not to follow them. The map may be used for reviewing the route before you begin, or re-routing in case of emergency. I’m not sure if any of this is true; it’s just idle speculation. If it is true, though, then LineDrive doesn’t offer any advantages — it doesn’t explain the route any more clearly than verbal directions, and it doesn’t let you do any route planning.

Alas, it died too soon. Microsoft bought MapBlast in 2002 and closed them down. They took the LineDrive technology and kept it going on their own map service, MSN Maps & Directions, until 2005. The site stopped updating in 2005, however, and Microsoft’s subsequent mapping endeavors don’t appear to offer LineDrive as an option. You can still access the old 2005 site, however, at (EDIT 10/19/11: Microsoft appears to have finally taken MapBlast offline. Maybe traffic from this post reminded them that they’d left it up.) In generating a sample image for this post, I noticed that the database has quite a few holes and errors in it, so I wouldn’t trust the directions it gives. It’s merely a relic of a different era. If you try it, be sure to check out the standard map directions, too, in addition to the LineDrive ones — it’s a nice reminder of just how far online road map design has come in the past few years.

LineDrive was something truly different. MapBlast’s competitors offered a slightly enhanced version of the paper road atlas. MapBlast offered this, too, but they would also give you your own version of a hand-drawn route map for anywhere you wanted to go, at a moment’s notice. I feel like LineDrive made much more effective use of the power computers can bring to cartography than other online mapping services have. It was a more creative re-thinking of what the digital revolution could do for map-making.

I never used to draw route maps by hand; I would simply write verbal directions and bring an atlas. Discovering LineDrive changed that, though. Every long and unfamiliar trip since then has started with me taking pen to paper and sketching out a simple linear cartogram to get me where I want to go.

20 thoughts on “Remembering LineDrive

    1. With directions alone it would probably not possible, since you’d need geometrical data, which Google doesn’t provide. Using OpenStreetMap data and one of the many routing services based on it however…

      1. For the most part you don’t need the actual geometry, though, do you? Knowing the location of each turn is enough to draw the straight lines from point to point, and you can get that from Google directions. But probably not those cross streets that appear here.

        Daniel: Thanks for pointing this out! I’m reminded a little bit of something Bing was (is?) doing that would generate something of a sketch map of directions, but as far as I recall that’s still basically a single scale, geographically accurate map.

        1. I would think you would need things like angles at which roads cross, or names of major roads you pass. Also landmarks or crossings with traffic lights would help alot, too, when generating such a map. You can’t get any of those from Googles directions.

          1. The bing maps link above requires Silverlight, so maybe they’ve strapped it to a whale, but I can confirm that LineDrive used to be a (workable) option in MSN Maps.

      2. I wonder if you can pull the angles at least off of the plotted line you get on the Google Maps directions?

        1. OpenStreetMap would be a much better candidate for things like this. The raw geometry is already available to play with, and its license allows you actually do so. Software to provide the routing is still being actively developed though, so that’s probably where most of the rough edges will be.

  1. This is close to what I usually do to “post-process” Google maps output. I don’t draw the napkin-map, but I do write out abbreviated directions, typically a sequence of highway numbers, exit numbers, and turn directions, with an emphasis on the non-obvious or high-stakes ones.

    I have often wished that the map tool could generate that, but the principal challenge is identifying the non-obvious or high-stakes data. “High-stakes” might be fairly easy, it just means if you screw this up, it will take you miles out of your way to fix it, and might, for instance, put you on a toll road that you didn’t want to go on. “Non-obvious” is harder to automate, but for me it often means exits that are marked to somewhere that isn’t on the route — on the drive from DC to New York, for instance, there’s a point where you take an exit that’s marked to Atlantic City, but you exit on to the NJ turnpike soon afterwards, and you don’t actually go to Atlantic City.

    So, there’s one for the internet engineers out there.

    1. Another problematic area for me is spaghetti junctions, where the directions don’t give you any warning about how imposing these structures can be. It’s easy to get overwhelmed and confused while looking at all the different signs, but if something like LineDrive could draw the junction and highlight the route you need to take through it, you could familiarize yourself with it beforehand and alleviate a lot of stress.

  2. I’ve never liked these kind of maps, simply because if you miss a turn (or even just think you might have missed a turn) you don’t get any clues from the map. While a full map is a little more cluttered, at any point I can look at the streets around me and figure out exactly where I am in relation to the planned route.

  3. Check out Destination Maps, the spiritual successor to linedrive. It gives you more context, in case you overshoots a turn, etc. Pretty cool.

    IIRC, linedrive was patented, but this research was also done at MS, so it might eventually be productized.

  4. 1. ‘Pacenotes’, as established by Denis Jenkinson with Stirling Moss in the 1955 Mille Miglia.

    2. You might also examine the AAA’s “TripTik” which predates 1980.


  5. I so miss these directions. Surely they’re available again, as the patents have run out? I was at system1’s site and was reminded of them. They are looking for partners to improve MapQuest!!! The links Peter & Steve give, above are (9 years old and) dead. Where can I find linedrive- style route maps generators today? M$ bought and killed the technology, but we can rebuild it… Maneesh is now at Stanford.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s